The main disorders of sleep
Obstructive sleep apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (“OSA” for short) is characterized by nocturnal breathing interruptions, which are very often accompanied by snoring. The upper airway (throat) closes during sleep, so that air can no longer flow into the trachea and lungs. This throat area is kept open for days by muscular tension. The muscles relax at night and under certain conditions (e.g. overweight, old age, etc.) the airways collapse. The patients then do not feel rested, complain of morning headaches, difficulty concentrating, daytime sleepiness and sleepiness. It is a very common disease in adulthood. Different therapy options are available.
Difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep (Insomnia)
Older people in particular suffer from this problem. Women are affected more often than men. It is very typical for this disease that those affected always feel tired but cannot sleep during the day. Not only the night, but also the day becomes torture. Different reasons can be decisive for this illness. Above all, the psyche plays a crucial role, although physical / organic problems can also exist. There are different treatment options here.
“Hypersomnia” is the technical term for “sleep addiction”. The main complaint of this disease is daytime sleepiness. Those affected suffer from falling asleep during the day. This drowsiness occurs especially in monotonous situations (theater, cinema, meetings, long driving). Different causes can be the reason for this disease. In many cases, drug therapy helps.
Sleep-wake rhythm disturbances
The most common illness is the so-called “jet lag”. But shift workers also have a high risk of developing a sleep-wake rhythm disorder after years. There is a discrepancy between your own “internal clock” and the sleep-wake cycle associated with it.
Nocturnal movement disorders
Nocturnal sleep-related movement disorders include restless leg syndrome (restless legs syndrome), periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), and, among other things, bruxism (night-time teeth grinding). Here, too, very different therapeutic approaches lead to significantly better sleep.
Almost every second man over the age of 40 snores. Women can also be affected, but much less often. Strictly speaking, snoring is not a disease. Nevertheless, it can be very annoying for the bed partner. Those affected can also notice snoring themselves. It is important to distinguish whether snoring is linked to breathing interruptions or not. Conservative and operative therapeutic approaches exist for this.
Sleep-related breathing disorders
Sleep-related breathing disorders are a number of diseases that are associated with disturbed breathing at night during sleep. The most common disorder is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). You can find more information under the heading OSAS. This causes the throat to collapse repeatedly at night. This leads to oxygen desaturation, which is permanently harmful to the cardiovascular system (increased heart attack and stroke rate). The OSAS is characterized by restless sleep, snoring, daytime sleepiness up to an increased tendency to fall asleep (micro sleep attacks, second sleep), as well as a headache in the morning.